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The clitoris

Before I go into more detail about the clitoris, first things to know about the clitoris itself:

The clitoris

A contribution by Falk

The clitoris, like the erectile tissue of the penis, is an erectable organ that is capable of swelling and that limits the front of the vaginal vestibule.
The outer urethral opening follows to the rear.
The clitoris consists of two legs that continue inwards towards the labia minora and a shaft that pulls downwards inwards towards the vaginal entrance. Finally, visible from the outside is the glans clitoridis, the most intensely sexually stimulable part of the clitoris.

The labia minora laterally limit the vaginal vestibule. The slender labia, which are not penetrated by fatty tissue, converge at the front above the clitoris and form the foreskin. They can also be sexually stimulated on the inside.

The large and small atrial glands produce thin, slimy secretions that moisturize the pubic cleft and are increasingly secreted during sexual arousal.

The term clitoris comes from the Greek and means "small hill". The clitoris lies below the pubic bone at the point where the labia minora merge. The clitoris is partially covered by a foreskin. Anatomically and historically, it corresponds to the tip of the man's penis. The visible part looks like a small nodule. The length of the clitoris is around 2½ centimeters - when you take testosterone, it extends to five and more centimeters.

The erectile tissue is hidden. When aroused, the clitoris can swell significantly.
In contrast to the penis, however, it retracts under the foreskin.
The urethral opening lies a long way below the clitoris, the vaginal entrance is shifted even more backwards.
The labia majora cover the clitoris, urethral opening and vaginal entrance. There are many individual differences in terms of size, shape and color.

Which came first, the chicken or the egg?
While we don't know the answer to this question, we do know that all human beings "begin" in their development as women, even if they are genetically men.
For the first eight weeks of our existence, male and female fetuses share the same rudimentary sex and reproductive organs.
In the early stages of fetal development, maternal hormones control the development of the reproductive organs because the fetus is unable to produce its own.
Before the 12th week of pregnancy, the sex of a fetus can usually not be determined visually. The following picture shows that they still look very similar even after more than twelve weeks.

Development of the genitals

 Fig.: Development and similarities between male and female genitals



Detailed insights

The pelvic bones close under the dam in the shape of a triangle, the so-called "pelvic connection". This is usually wider in women than in men. During a birth, the baby comes through this connection.
Two pairs of elongated muscles form the pelvic connection. A pair (Ischiocavernosus) runs next to the pelvic bone and forms the two sides of the triangle whose apex forms the clitoris. The other pair of muscles (transverse perineal muscles) expand to the side of the perineum, connecting these muscles and forming the bottom of the triangle. A third pair of muscles (bulbocavernosus) also expand from the tip of the clitoris within the triangle, run downward under the outer labia, and connect to the perineum.
You can easily identify these muscles by moving your muscles as if to stop a stream of urine.
During an orgasm, these muscles, which lie under the top layer of fat and skin, all work together, compressing the soft, tissue of the clitoris between them. At the same time, they stimulate the inner tissues within themselves and in the deeper layers of muscles.

A small ribbon divides the cartilage where the pelvic bones meet. It is attached to the clitoris shaft and draws it and the whole clitoris during sexual arousal.


Once you examine yourself, you can see much of the build-up that lies beneath the surface of the skin.
The cavernous bodies and blood vessels lie beneath the top layer of muscles.
There are two types of erectile tissue in the clitoris: one is firmer, stronger and the other is elastic.
When these cavernous bodies fill with blood during sexual arousal, both of them stiffen a little more and thus support the erection. The blood that fills this complex tangle of closely spaced blood vessels comes from larger arteries.
The clitoral shaft is very long. Thin connections of the stronger erectile tissue also expand outside the shaft along the pelvic bone.
The bud of the clitoris, which is located below the outer labia and the uppermost muscle layer, is embedded in the more elastic erectile tissue.
Another, spongy body extends the inside along the vagina ceiling. This cushion of soft tissue can easily be "felt" by inserting the finger into the vagina and gently pushing forward towards the pelvic bone; it envelops the urethra and protects it from direct pressure during sexual intercourse.
We couldn't find a name for this structure in non-fiction books, so we named it "urethral sponge". ((Note: - this is the G-spot; named after the "discoverer": Graefenberg))

There are 2 pairs of glands inside the clitoris that have "valves" that open them to the outside.
A pair is tiny and its predetermined function, if any, is uncertain.
The other pair of glands, the vulvovaginal glands, secrete a few drops of fluid during sexual arousal. Usually a woman is only aware of the latter glands when they become inflamed and swell up.
As we examine our body to explore the clitoris, we notice an area between the vagina and anus that "gives way" when you press it. We discovered that this is the swelling tissue that is the lower region of the clitoris, about an inch deep. forms. Without any medical meaning, we named it "perineal sponge".

Tied to each side of the pelvic bone attachment and wrapped around the rectum (rectum) and vagina is the pelvic diaphragm (diaphragm / septum), a free muscle.
All of the structures of the clitoris rest on this large muscle that tightens the rectum (rectum) and vagina when it contracts.
Dr. Arnold Kegal from Los Angeles paid quite a bit of attention to this muscle (pubococcygeal). He supports the thesis that he enhances sexual sensation.
Dr. Kegal recommends that a woman move this muscle repeatedly several times a day, as if stopping a stream of urine.
Obstetricians advocate this as well, plus some other exercises to make this and the other muscles of the clitoris stronger and more elastic.

In all of the anatomy and sex books we studied there were various subdirectories about the penis, but not a single subdirectory about the clitoris!
This subdirectory presents the female sexual organ very precisely and all other muscles that are involved in the sexual act.
The clitoris is in a non-aroused, non-stimulated state.
The clitoral muscles are not shown here, but they are still very much involved in orgasm.

 Fig.: Detailed view of the clitoris

This view of the clitoris shows the "urethral sponge" that covers and protects the urethra. This erectile tissue fills with blood during sexual arousal and during intercourse it acts as an "airbag" between the penis and the urethra.

 Fig.: Self-examination of the urethral sponge

You can feel the "urethral sponge" by inserting 2 fingers into the vagina and pushing back towards the pubic bone. Sometimes pressure on the "urethral sponge" makes you feel like you have to urinate.

 Fig.: Self-examination of the perineal sponge

You can feel the "prineum (dam) sponge" by inserting your thumb into the vagina and gently pushing towards the anus. The fabric yields and can be pressed in.
When you release the pressure, the fabric gives way and returns to its original shape. If you try this out, you could also feel sensual sensations in other parts of the clitoris.

The nerves that lie in the clitoris are very sensitive and transmit sensory perceptions during sexual arousal. The clitoral bud has a particularly high number of nerves.

 Fig.: Female ejaculation

Occasionally "self-helpers" (women who practice masturbation) have reported that a clear liquid escaped from their clitoris during orgasm.
This liquid shoots out in a jet in several bursts.
One woman described this phenomenon as "gallons of fluid," which is a fluid other than vaginal secretions, the natural feminine lubricant.
Some women mistook this for urinating.
Another woman noticed that the smell of this secretion was different from urine. In contrast to unintentional urination, this phenomenon rarely occurs in women during sexual intercourse.
This fluid is chemically different from urine and is expelled by the paraurethral glands that attach to the "urethral sponge" of the clitoris.
The same tissue that forms the paraurethral glands in female fetuses during development in the womb, forms the prostate gland in a male fetus, which later also causes the male effusion.

A group of lesbian women who observed this phenomenon (female effusion) made their observations available to sex researchers (Berverly Whipple, R.N. and John Perry, Ph. D.).
In reviewing some of the literature, Whipple and Perry found that a sex researcher by the name of Graefenberg reported some similar phenomena in the early 1950s.
He confirmed the existence of a highly sensitive and spongy tissue surrounding the urethra and stated that direct stimulation of this tissue could cause fluid to leak during orgasm. This liquid is by no means urine.
Based on this report and their own clinical observations, Whipper and Perry concluded that these women were experiencing a "female effusion." They named this tissue "Graefenberg-Spot" (translator's note: Graefenberg-Spot, now only known as the G-spot) to identify this point, which they believed to be the cause of the female effusion of the vagina.
The rediscovery of this tissue around the urethra and paraurethral glands shows that clitoral stimulation is inextricably linked to the phenomenon of "female effusion".
Apart from the female effusion, some women reported that stimulating the erectile tissue around the urethra is a point of sexual stimulation and can even lead to orgasm.


During sexual arousal, the complex chambers of this tissue fill with blood, which is then passed through "valves". The whole clitoris swells up and changes drastically. The clitoral bud and shaft are aroused (stiffen) and hold this position until orgasm. Below, the muscles are taut and sensitive to sexual stimulation.

Source: A New View of a Woman's Body
Copyright 1981, The Federation of Feminist Women's Health Centers
Illustrated By: Suzann Gage, L Ac, RNC, NP
ISBN 0-9629945-0-2 Pbk.

Research, revision and compilation: Falk




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